COVID-19 and the weather

There is a lot of interest in whether COVID-19 transmission is affected by temperature, and in particular what will happen as New Zealand enters autumn and then winter.

The available data are of course limited and largely ecological in nature, with very short time-series data reported. The extent to which the findings reflect human behaviour or bona fide environmental effects is also not clear.

Nevertheless, the evidence – while limited and subject to other interpretations – does suggest that a cooling temperature leads to greater transmission of the virus, and even possibly to more severe disease. If real (and it cannot be known until more data are available), then it provides a further impetus for using the current lockdown period to aim for eradication.

Below is a regularly updated paper list maintained by Dr Felicia Low. Note that due to the very rapid pace of the research, many of the papers are preprints that have not yet been subjected to peer review.

See also:
Why does virus spread faster in cold months? – 2 April 2020 – Felicia discusses this work with NZ Herald’s Jamie Morton

 

PinPinned key references:

 

Added 7 June 2020 – published papers only (non-preprints)

  • Biktasheva, I. V. “Role of a Habitat’s Air Humidity in Covid-19 Mortality.” Science of the Total Environment 736 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138763.
  • Iqbal, Najaf, Zeeshan Fareed, Farrukh Shahzad, Xin He, Umer Shahzad, and Ma Lina. “The Nexus between Covid-19, Temperature and Exchange Rate in Wuhan City: New Findings from Partial and Multiple Wavelet Coherence.” The Science of the total environment 729 (2020 Aug 10 (Epub 2020 Apr 2020): 138916. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138916.
  • Jüni, Peter, Martina Rothenbühler, Pavlos Bobos, Kevin E. Thorpe, Bruno R. da Costa, David N. Fisman, Arthur S. Slutsky, and Dionne Gesink. “Impact of Climate and Public Health Interventions on the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Cohort Study.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 192, no. 21 (2020): E566. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.200920.
  • Méndez-Arriaga, F. “The Temperature and Regional Climate Effects on Communitarian Covid-19 Contagion in Mexico Throughout Phase 1.” Science of the Total Environment 735 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139560.
  • Menebo, M. M. “Temperature and Precipitation Associate with Covid-19 New Daily Cases: A Correlation Study between Weather and Covid-19 Pandemic in Oslo, Norway.” Science of the Total Environment 737 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139659.
  • Tobías, A. and T. Molina. “Is Temperature Reducing the Transmission of Covid-19 ?” Environmental Research 186 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109553.
  • Ward, Michael P., Shuang Xiao, and Zhijie Zhang. “The Role of Climate During the Covid-19 Epidemic in New South Wales, Australia.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 21 May 2020. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13631.

 

Added 25 May 2020 – published papers only (non-preprints)

  • Baker, Rachel E., Wenchang Yang, Gabriel A. Vecchi, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, and Bryan T. Grenfell. “Susceptible Supply Limits the Role of Climate in the Early Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic.” Science (New York, N.Y.)  (2020-May-18 2020). DOI: 10.1126/science.abc2535.
  • Byass, P. “Eco-Epidemiological Assessment of the Covid-19 Epidemic in China, January-February 2020.” Global health action 13, no. 1 (2020): 1760490. DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2020.1760490.
  • Demongeot, Jacques, Yannis Flet-Berliac, and Herve Seligmann. “Temperature Decreases Spread Parameters of the New Covid-19 Case Dynamics.” Biology 9, no. 5 (2020 May 2020). DOI: 10.3390/biology9050094.
  • Eslami, Hadi and Mahrokh Jalili. “The Role of Environmental Factors to Transmission of Sars-Cov-2 (Covid-19).” AMB Express 10, no. 1 (2020 May 2020): 92-92. DOI: 10.1186/s13568-020-01028-0.
  • Huang, Zhongwei, Jianping Huang, Qianqing Gu, Pengyue Du, Hongbin Liang, and Qing Dong. “Optimal Temperature Zone for the Dispersal of Covid-19.” The Science of the total environment  (2020-May-16 2020): 139487-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139487.
  • Jiang, Ying, Xiao-Jun Wu, and Yan-Jun Guan. “Effect of Ambient Air Pollutants and Meteorological Variables on Covid-19 Incidence.” Infection control and hospital epidemiology  (2020-May-11 2020): 1-11. DOI: 10.1017/ice.2020.222.
  • Juni, Peter, Martina Rothenbuhler, Pavlos Bobos, Kevin E. Thorpe, Bruno R. da Costa, David N. Fisman, Arthur S. Slutsky, and Dionne Gesink. “Impact of Climate and Public Health Interventions on the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Cohort Study.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal (2020-May-08 2020). DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.200920.
  • O’Reilly, Kathleen M., Megan Auzenbergs, Yalda Jafari, Yang Liu, Stefan Flasche, and Rachel Lowe. “Effective Transmission across the Globe: The Role of Climate in Covid-19 Mitigation Strategies.” The Lancet. Planetary health  (2020-May-06 2020). DOI: 10.1016/s2542-5196(20)30106-6.
  • Quraishi, Sadeq A., Lorenzo Berra, and Ala Nozari. “Indoor Temperature and Relative Humidity in Hospitals: Workplace Considerations During the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic.” Occupational and environmental medicine  (2020-May-18 2020). DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2020-106653.
  • Scafetta, Nicola. “Distribution of the Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic and Its Monthly Forecast Based on Seasonal Climate Patterns.” International journal of environmental research and public health 17, no. 10 (2020 May 2020). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103493.
  • Ujiie, Mugen, Shinya Tsuzuki, and Norio Ohmagari. “Effect of Temperature on the Infectivity of Covid-19.” International journal of infectious diseases 95 (2020-Apr-30 2020): 301-03. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.068.
  • Xu, Hao, Chonghuai Yan, Qingyan Fu, Kai Xiao, Yamei Yu, Deming Han, Wenhua Wang, and Jinping Cheng. “Possible Environmental Effects on the Spread of Covid-19 in China.” The Science of the total environment 731 (2020-May-07 2020): 139211-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139211.
  • Yao, Maosheng, Lu Zhang, Jianxin Ma, and Lian Zhou. “On Airborne Transmission and Control of Sars-Cov-2.” The Science of the total environment 731 (2020-May-04 2020): 139178-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139178.
  • Yao, Ye, Jinhua Pan, Zhixi Liu, Xia Meng, Weidong Wang, Haidong Kan, and Weibing Wang. “No Association of Covid-19 Transmission with Temperature or UV Radiation in Chinese Cities.” European Respiratory Journal 55, no. 5 (May 1 2020). DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00517-2020.

 

Added 13 May 2020

  • Abdollahi, Amir and Maryam Rahbaralam. “Effect of Temperature on the Transmission of Covid-19: A Machine Learning Case Study in Spain.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.05.01.20087759.
  • Auler, A. C., F. A. M. Cássaro, V. O. da Silva, and L. F. Pires. “Evidence That High Temperatures and Intermediate Relative Humidity Might Favor the Spread of Covid-19 in Tropical Climate: A Case Study for the Most Affected Brazilian Cities.” Science of the Total Environment 729 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139090.
  • Del Rio, Carlos and Adrián Camacho-Ortiz. “Will Environmental Changes in Temperature Affect the Course of Covid-19?” The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases  (2020/05/04/ 2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2020.04.007.
  • Demongeot, Jacques, Yannis Flet-Berliac, and Hervé Seligmann. “Temperature Decreases Spread Parameters of the New Covid-19 Case Dynamics.” Biology 9, no. 5 (2020): 94.
  • Kang, D and C Ellgen. “The Role of Temperature in Covid-19 Disease Severity and Transmission Rates.” Preprints  (2020): 2020050070. DOI: 10.20944/preprints202005.0070.v1.
  • O’Reilly, Kathleen M., Megan Auzenbergs, Yalda Jafari, Yang Liu, Stefan Flasche, and Rachel Lowe. “Effective Transmission across the Globe: The Role of Climate in Covid-19 Mitigation Strategies.” The Lancet. Planetary Health  (2020). DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30106-6.
  • Rubin, David, Jing Huang, Brian T Fisher, Antonio Gasparrini, Vicky Tam, Lihai Song, Xi Wang, Jason Kaufman, Kate Fitzpatrick, Arushi Jain, Heather Griffis, Koby Crammer, and Gregory Tasian. “The Association of Social Distancing, Population Density, and Temperature with the Sars-Cov-2 Instantaneous Reproduction Number in Counties across the United States.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.05.08.20094474.
  • Scafetta, N. “A Proposal for Isotherm World Maps to Forecast the Seasonal Evolution of the Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic.” Preprints  (2020): 2020040063. DOI: 10.20944/preprints202004.0063.v1.
  • Sobur, Md.Abdus, Md.Saiful Islam, Md.Emdadul Haque, Md.Taohidul Haque, Antonio Toniolo, and Md.Tanvir Rahman. “Temperature and Relative Humidity Are Not Major Contributing Factor on the Occurrence of Covid-19 Pandemic: An Observational Study in 57 Countries.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.05.03.20089342.
  • Xu, Ran, Hazhir Rahmandad, Marichi Gupta, Catherine DiGennaro, Navid Ghaffarzadegan, and Mohammad S. Jalali. “Weather Conditions and Covid-19 Transmission: Estimates and Projections.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.05.05.20092627.

 

Added 6 May 2020

  • Ahmadi, M., A. Sharifi, S. Dorosti, S. Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, and N. Ghanbari. “Investigation of Effective Climatology Parameters on Covid-19 Outbreak in Iran.” Science of the Total Environment 729 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138705.
  • Al-Rousan, N and H Al-Najjar. “The Correlation between the Spread of Covid-19 Infections and Weather Variables in 30 Chinese Provinces and the Impact of Chinese Government Mitigation Plans.” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 24, no. 8 (2020): 4565-71. DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202004_21042.
  • Briz-Redón, Á and Á Serrano-Aroca. “A Spatio-Temporal Analysis for Exploring the Effect of Temperature on Covid-19 Early Evolution in Spain.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138811.
  • Li, Hong, Hongwei Xiao, Renguo Zhu, Chengxing Sun, Cheng Liu, and Huayun Xiao. “Warmer Weather and Global Trends in the Coronavirus Covid-19.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.28.20084004.
  • Prata, D. N., W. Rodrigues, and P. H. Bermejo. “Temperature Significantly Changes Covid-19 Transmission in (Sub)Tropical Cities of Brazil.” Science of the Total Environment 729 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138862.
  • Raina, Sunil, Raman Kumar, Sakshi Bhota, Garima Gupta, Dinesh Kumar, Raman Chauhan, and Praveen Kumar. “Does Temperature and Humidity Influence the Spread of Covid-19?: A Preliminary Report.” Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 9, no. 4 (April 1, 2020): 1811-14. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_494_20.
  • Sil, Arjun. “Does Weather Affect the Growth Rate of Covid-19, a Study to Comprehend Transmission Dynamics on Human Health.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.29.20085795.
  • Sobral, M. F. F., G. B. Duarte, A. I. G. da Penha Sobral, M. L. M. Marinho, and A. de Souza Melo. “Association between Climate Variables and Global Transmission of Sars-Cov-2.” Science of the Total Environment 729 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138997.
  • Wu, Y., W. Jing, J. Liu, Q. Ma, J. Yuan, Y. Wang, M. Du, and M. Liu. “Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Daily New Cases and New Deaths of Covid-19 in 166 Countries.” Science of the Total Environment 729 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139051.
  • Yu, Xinhua. “Impact of Mitigating Interventions and Temperature on the Instantaneous Reproduction Number in the Covid-19 Epidemic among 30 Us Metropolitan Areas.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.26.20081083.

 

Added 29 April 2020

  • Bashir, M. F., B. Ma, Bilal, B. Komal, M. A. Bashir, D. Tan, and M. Bashir. “Correlation between Climate Indicators and Covid-19 Pandemic in New York, USA.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138835.
  • Berumen, Jaime, Max Schmulson, Guadalupe Guerrero, Elizabeth Barrera, Jorge Larriva-Sahd, Gustavo Olaiz, Rebeca Garcia-Leyva, Rosa M Wong-Chew, Miguel Betancourt-Cravioto, Hector Gallardo, German Fajardo-Dolci, and Roberto Tapia-Conyer. “Trends of Sars-Cov-2 Infection in 67 Countries: Role of Climate Zone, Temperature, Humidity and Curve Behavior of Cumulative Frequency on Duplication Time.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.18.20070920.
  • Gupta, S., G. S. Raghuwanshi, and A. Chanda. “Effect of Weather on Covid-19 Spread in the Us: A Prediction Model for India in 2020.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138860.
  • Jahangiri, M., M. Jahangiri, and M. Najafgholipour. “The Sensitivity and Specificity Analyses of Ambient Temperature and Population Size on the Transmission Rate of the Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19) in Different Provinces of Iran.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138872.
  • Kubota, Yasuhiro, Takayuki Shiono, Buntarou Kusumoto, and Junichi Fujinuma. “Multiple Drivers of the Covid-19 Spread: Role of Climate, International Mobility, and Region-Specific Conditions.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.20.20072157.
  • Kumar, M., K. Kuroda, and K. Dhangar. “The Most Eagerly Awaited Summer of the Anthropocene: A Perspective of Sars-Cov-2 Decay and Seasonal Change.” Groundwater for Sustainable Development 11 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100400.
  • Kumar, Sarvan. “Will Covid-19 Pandemic Diminish by Summer-Monsoon in India? Lesson from the First Lockdown.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.22.20075499.
  • Merow, Cory and Mark C Urban. “Seasonality and Uncertainty in Covid-19 Growth Rates.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.19.20071951.
  • Pedrosa, Renato H.L. “The Dynamics of Covid-19: Weather, Demographics and Infection Timeline.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.21.20074450.
  • Qi, H., S. Xiao, R. Shi, M. P. Ward, Y. Chen, W. Tu, Q. Su, W. Wang, X. Wang, and Z. Zhang. “Covid-19 Transmission in Mainland China Is Associated with Temperature and Humidity: A Time-Series Analysis.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138778.
  • Quilodran, Claudio S., Mathias Currat, and Juan I. Montoya-Burgos. “Climatic Factors Influence Covid-19 Outbreak as Revealed by Worldwide Mortality.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.20.20072934.
  • Şahin, M. “Impact of Weather on Covid-19 Pandemic in Turkey.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138810.
  • Shi, P., Y. Dong, H. Yan, C. Zhao, X. Li, W. Liu, M. He, S. Tang, and S. Xi. “Impact of Temperature on the Dynamics of the Covid-19 Outbreak in China.” Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138890.

 

Added 21 April 2020

  • He, Zonglin, Yiqiao Chin, Jian Huang, Yi He, Babatunde O. Akinwunmi, Shinning Yu, Casper J.P. Zhang, and Wai-kit Ming. “Meteorological Factors and Domestic New Cases of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) in Nine Asian Cities: A Time-Series Analysis.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.15.20066613.
  • Kassem, Aly Zein Elabdeen. “Do Weather Temperature and Median-Age Affect Covid-19 Transmission?” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.16.20067355.
  • Liu, Jiangtao, Ji Zhou, Jinxi Yao, Xiuxia Zhang, Lanyu Li, Xiaocheng Xu, Xiaotao He, Bo Wang, Shihua Fu, Tingting Niu, Jun Yan, Yanjun Shi, Xiaowei Ren, Jingping Niu, Weihao Zhu, Sheng Li, Bin Luo, and Kai Zhang. “Impact of Meteorological Factors on the Covid-19 Transmission: A Multi-City Study in China.” Science of The Total Environment 726 (2020/07/15/ 2020): 138513. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138513.
  • Marvi, Murk and Asad Arfeen. “Demystifying a Hidden Trend: Do Temperature Variations Affect Covid-19 Virus Spread? .” SSRN April 2 (2020). DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3567084.
  • Mecenas, Paulo, Renata Bastos, Antonio Vallinoto, and David Normando. “Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Spread of Covid-19: A Systematic Review.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.14.20064923.
  • Tosepu, Ramadhan, Joko Gunawan, Devi Savitri Effendy, La Ode Ali Imran Ahmad, Hariati Lestari, Hartati Bahar, and Pitrah Asfian. “Correlation between Weather and Covid-19 Pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia.” Science of The Total Environment 725 (2020/07/10/ 2020): 138436. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138436.

 

Added 15 April 2020

  • Baker, Rachel E., Wenchang Yang, Gabriel A. Vecchi, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, and Bryan T Grenfell. “Susceptible Supply Limits the Role of Climate in the Covid-19 Pandemic.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.03.20052787.
  • Chiyomaru, Katsumi and Kazuhiro Takemoto. “Global Covid-19 Transmission Rate Is Influenced by Precipitation Seasonality and the Speed of Climate Temperature Warming.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.10.20060459.
  • Harbert, Robert S, Seth W Cunningham, and Michael Tessler. “Spatial Modeling Cannot Currently Differentiate Sars-Cov-2 Coronavirus and Human Distributions on the Basis of Climate in the United States.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.08.20057281.
  • Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir. “Is the Spread of Covid-19 across Countries Influenced by Environmental, Economic and Social Factors?” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.08.20058164.
  • Ma, Y., Y. Zhao, J. Liu, X. He, B. Wang, S. Fu, J. Yan, J. Niu, J. Zhou, and B. Luo. “Effects of Temperature Variation and Humidity on the Death of Covid-19 in Wuhan, China.” Science of the Total Environment 724: 138226 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138226.
  • Neher, R. A., R. Dyrdak, V. Druelle, E. B. Hodcroft, and J. Albert. “Potential Impact of Seasonal Forcing on a Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic.” Swiss medical weekly 150 (2020): w20224. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20224.
  • Pirouz, Behzad, Amirsina Golmohammadi, Hasti Saeidpour Masouleh, Galileo Violini, and Behrouz Pirouz. “Relationship between Average Daily Temperature and Average Cumulative Daily Rate of Confirmed Cases of Covid-19.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.10.20059337.
  • Xie, J. and Y. Zhu. “Association between Ambient Temperature and Covid-19 Infection in 122 Cities from China.” Science of the Total Environment 724: 138201 (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138201.

 

Added 7 April 2020

  • Coelho, Marco Tulio Pacheco, Joao Fabricio Mota Rodrigues, Anderson Matos Medina, Paulo Scalco, Levi Carina Terribile, Bruno Vilela, Jose Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho, and Ricardo Dobrovolski. “Exponential Phase of Covid19 Expansion Is Not Driven by Climate at Global Scale.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.02.20050773.
  • Jamil, Tahira, Intikhab Syed Alam, Takashi Gojobori, and Carlos Duarte. “No Evidence for Temperature-Dependence of the Covid-19 Epidemic.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.29.20046706.
  • Li, Jianfeng, Linyuan Zhang, Zhihua Ren, Caihong Xing, Peihuan Qiao, and Bing Chang. “Meteorological Factors Correlate with Transmission of 2019-Ncov: Proof of Incidence of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hubei Province, China.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.01.20050526.
  • Poole, Logan. “Seasonal Influences on the Spread of Sars-Cov-2 (Covid19), Causality, and Forecastabililty (3-15-2020).” SSRN March 15 (2020). DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3554746
  • Triplett, Michael. “Evidence That Higher Temperatures Are Associated with Lower Incidence of Covid-19 in Pandemic State, Cumulative Cases Reported up to March 27, 2020.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.04.02.20051524.

 

Added 31 March 2020

  • Araujo, Miguel B. and Babak Naimi. “Spread of Sars-Cov-2 Coronavirus Likely to Be Constrained by Climate.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.12.20034728.
  • Cai, Yuwen, Tianlun Huang, Xin Liu, and Gaosi Xu. “The Effects of “Fangcang, Huoshenshan, and Leishenshan” Makeshift Hospitals and Temperature on the Mortality of Covid-19.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.02.26.20028472.
  • Carleton, Tamma and Kyle C. Meng. “Causal Empirical Estimates Suggest Covid-19 Transmission Rates Are Highly Seasonal.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.26.20044420.
  • Caspi, Gil, Uri Shalit, Soren Lund Kristensen, Doron Aronson, Lilac Caspi, Oran Rossenberg, Avi Shina, and Oren Caspi. “Climate Effect on Covid-19 Spread Rate: An Online Surveillance Tool.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.26.20044727.
  • Chen, Biqing, Hao Liang, Xiaomin Yuan, Yingying Hu, Miao Xu, Yating Zhao, Binfen Zhang, Fang Tian, and Xuejun Zhu. “Roles of Meteorological Conditions in Covid-19 Transmission on a Worldwide Scale.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.16.20037168.
  • Ficetola, Gentile Francesco and Diego Rubolini. “Climate Affects Global Patterns of Covid-19 Early Outbreak Dynamics.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.23.20040501.
  • Guo, X-J, H Zhang, and Yi-Ping Zeng. “Transmissibility of Covid-19 and Its Association with Temperature and Humidity.” Research Square March 16 (2020). DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-17715/v1.
  • Gupta, Dhruv “Effect of Ambient Temperature on Covid-19 Infection Rate.” SSRN March 21 (2020). DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3558470.
  • Islam, Nazrul, Sharmin Shabnam, and A Mesut Erzurumluoglu. “Meteorological Factors and Covid-19 Incidence in 310 Regions across the World.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.27.20045658.
  • Luo, Wei, Maimuna S Majumder, Dianbo Liu, Canelle Poirier, Kenneth D Mandl, Marc Lipsitch, and Mauricio Santillana. “The Role of Absolute Humidity on Transmission Rates of the Covid-19 Outbreak.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.02.12.20022467.
  • Ma, Yueling, Yadong Zhao, Jiangtao Liu, Xiaotao He, Bo Wang, Shihua Fu, Jun Yan, Jingping Niu, and Bin Luo. “Effects of Temperature Variation and Humidity on the Mortality of Covid-19 in Wuhan.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.15.20036426.
  • Notari, Alessio. “Temperature Dependence of Covid-19 Transmission.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.26.20044529.
  • Oliveiros, Barbara, Liliana Caramelo, Nuno C Ferreira, and Francisco Caramelo. “Role of Temperature and Humidity in the Modulation of the Doubling Time of Covid-19 Cases.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.05.20031872.
  • Qi, Hongchao, Shuang Xiao, Runye Shi, Michael P. Ward, Yue Chen, Wei Tu, Qing Su, Wenge Wang, Xinyi Wang, and Zhijie Zhang. “Covid-19 Transmission in Mainland China Is Associated with Temperature and Humidity: A Time-Series Analysis.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.30.20044099. — Now published (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138778).
  • Sajadi, Mohammad M, Parham Habibzadeh, Augustin Vintzileos, Shervin Shokouhi, Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm, and Anthony Amoroso. “Temperature, Humidity and Latitude Analysis to Predict Potential Spread and Seasonality for Covid-19.” SSRN March 5 (2020). DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3550308.
  • Shi, Peng, Yinqiao Dong, Huanchang Yan, Xiaoyang Li, Chenkai Zhao, Wei Liu, Miao He, Shixing Tang, and Shuhua Xi. “The Impact of Temperature and Absolute Humidity on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Outbreak – Evidence from China.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.03.22.20038919. — Now published (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138890).
  • Wang, Jingyuan, Ke Tang, Kai Feng, and Weifeng Lv. “High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of Covid-19.” SSRN March 9 (2020). DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3551767
  • Wang, Mao, Aili Jiang, Lijuan Gong, Lina Luo, Wenbin Guo, Chuyi Li, Jing Zheng, Chaoyong Li, Bixing Yang, Jietong Zeng, Youping Chen, Ke Zheng, and Hongyan Li. “Temperature Significant Change Covid-19 Transmission in 429 Cities.” medRxiv  (2020): 2020.02.22.20025791.